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Cholin examine

Cholin Test 2021 - Choli

  1. Cholin Test & Vergleich: Die besten Produkte aus 2021 gesucht? Die besten Cholin im Test und Vergleich 2021
  2. Choline is a molecule mostly used for either its cognitive boosting properties (turning into acetylcholine, the learning neurotransmitter) or as a liver health agent, able to reduce fatty liver buildup. Found in high amounts in eggs, the yolks in particular. Our evidence-based analysis on choline features 38 unique references to scientific papers
  3. CDP-choline (citicoline) is a nootropic compound that converts to both choline and cytidine upon ingestion, the latter of which converts into uridine in the body. It appears to confer cognitive-promoting properties as a prodrug for these two compounds. Our evidence-based analysis on cdp-choline features 108 unique references to scientific papers
  4. Alpha-GPC is approximately 40% choline by weight, and as such 1,000 mg alpha-GPC confers about 400 mg of dietary choline. A standard dosage of alpha-GPC is 300-600 mg, according to the most common label doses. This dose is in accordance with the study using alpha-GPC to enhance power output (600 mg) and the two studies noting an increase in growth hormone secretion, and is likely a good dose to take for athletes

Choline Supplement - Examine

Become an Examine Member to get access to the latest research. Get 150+ studies summarized for you across 25 different categories every month. Members also have access to the Examine Study Database of 400+ supplements and their effects on 600+ health outcomes, as well as in-depth research analyses. Understand the whole body of nutrition and supplement evidence at a glance Recent findings about choline in brain development should stimulate comparable studies in humans. During the next few years, it is likely that food composition data will be available for choline, and this will make it possible to examine interactions between choline, folate, and methionine when considering epidemiological data. In addition, we should learn more about choline requirements in women. For these reasons interest in choline as a nutrient for humans should be sustained In one novel study, CDP choline was used to increase focus and attention in healthy adult women [6]. Another series of studies indicated that citicoline was a good anti-addictive agent against cocaine addiction [7]. Another major benefit of CDP choline is the bioavailability. Most choline prodrugs, such as choline bitartrate or soy lecithin, are poorly absorbed by humans. In contrast, CDP is highly bioavailable so you can avoid huge doses and inefficient supplementation Choline is the precursor to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which is essential for many aspects of cognitive function such as learning and memory. Racetam class nootropics like piracetam are considered acetylcholine agonists, which increase the production and release of acetylcholine by stimulating the appropriate neurotransmitter receptor sites In vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a specialized technique associated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), also known as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, is a non-invasive, ionizing-radiation-free analytical technique that has been used to study metabolic changes in brain tumors, strokes, seizure disorders, Alzheimer's.

Choline is highly concentrated in prostate cancer cells, and blood concentrations of choline have been associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer (6, 7). Thus, it is possible that the previously reported relations between meat, milk, and eggs and advanced prostate cancer were attributable in part to the choline content of these foods. However, no study has examined dietary choline in relation to the risk of lethal prostate cancer or prostate cancer survival Recent findings about choline in brain development should stimulate comparable studies in humans. During the next few years, it is likely that food composition data will be available for choline, and this will make it possible to examine interactions between choline, folate, and methionine when considering epidemiological data. In addition, we. Here, we examine if baseline status of one-carbon metabolism nutrients (folate, choline, betaine, and vitamin B 12) modified the effects of FA and creatine supplementation on changes in homocysteine, guanidinoacetate (GAA), total blood arsenic, and urinary arsenic metabolite proportions and indices Choline treatment also normalized deviant cortical levels of the autophagy markers measured in male mice. The results demonstrate that choline supplementation even at adulthood, not tested. Citicolin wird direkt nach der Aufnahme vom Körper in Cholin und Cytidin aufgespalten, die als körpereigene Substanzen dem weiteren Metabolismus zur Verfügung stehen. Cholin ist die Vorstufe von Acetylcholin, welches für die Reiz- und Informationsweiterleitung über Nervenzellen (Neuronen) im Gehirn verantwortlich ist. So können die einzelnen Hirnregionen optimal miteinander arbeiten

Case reports suggest that choline (a vitamin in the B family) reduces the severity of mania. Choline is required for synthesis of acetylcholine (Ach) a neurotransmitter that is important for memory Along with many other functions, choline helps the body produce acetylcholine, an important neurotransmitter for memory, mood, muscle control, and other brain and nervous system functions. A choline deficiency is associated with muscle damage, liver damage and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), per the NIH Exogenous Citicoline, administered by ingestion or injection, is hydrolyzed and dephosphorylated in order to form cytidine and choline, which resynthesize CDP-choline inside brain cells. It has proven neuroprotective effects in Alzheimer disease, stroke, and Parkinson's disease, as well as in glaucoma and amblyopia. Citicoline acts as a neuroprotector for those patients with progressive glaucomatous disease in spite of well-controlled intraocular pressure. The purpose of this review was to. Conclusions: Overall and among male participants, dietary choline or betaine intakes were not associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes. Among female participants, there was a trend for a modestly higher risk of type 2 diabetes among those with the highest as compared with the lowest quartile of dietary choline intake. Our study should inform clinical trials on dietary choline and betaine supplementation in relationship with the risk of type 2 diabetes Glutamate and choline levels predict individual differences in reading ability in emergent readers J Neurosci. 2014 Mar 12;34 (11):4082-9 The current study is the first to examine neurochemistry in children during the critical period in which the neurocircuits that support skilled reading are still developing. In a longitudinal pediatric sample of emergent readers whose reading indicators.

CDP-choline Supplement - Examine

We'll examine each source in the choline supplement list below, one-by-one, before issuing our final judgment on which nootropic choline source is the best for brain health and cognition. Check it out: Choline Bitartrate. Swap X- with the radical C 4 H 5 O 6, and there you have it: Choline Bitartrate - the simplest, cheapest form of supplementary choline. Many nootropic supplements opt for. Cholin's is on Facebook. Join Facebook to connect with Cholin's and others you may know. Facebook gives people the power to share and makes the world more open and connected Cho: Choline 3.2; Cr: Creatine 3.0; Naa: Naa 2.0; L: Lactate 1.3; History and etymology. MRS of intact biological tissues was first reported by two groups: Moon and Richards using P-31 MRS to examine intact red blood cells in 1973, and Hoult et al. using P-31 MRS to examine excised leg muscle from the rat in 1974

Choline Research Breakdown Examine

Deanol-Cholin Kapseln vegan 270mg Das, in Deanol-Cholin Kapseln enthaltene Cholin ist eine Substanz, die sich mit Fettmolekülen im Körper verbinde Erhöhte Cholesterinwerte können zu Herzinfarkt, Schlaganfall & Co. führen. Lesen Sie mehr über Cholesterin und Cholesterin-Grenzwerte Cholin Dirgantara is on Facebook. Join Facebook to connect with Cholin Dirgantara and others you may know. Facebook gives people the power to share and makes the world more open and connected Choline is not essential for cardiovascular. function (if so, please send me the reference). Acetylcholine is essential for neuronal and neuro-muscular transmission of the impulse, but this is covered by another article. —The preceding unsigned comment was added by Mdnic ( talk • contribs) 23:54, 27 March 2007 (UTC) Trimethylglycine (TMG) is an amino acid derivative that occurs in plants. Trimethylglycine was the first betaine discovered; originally it was simply called betaine because, in the 19th century, it was discovered in sugar beets. Since then, many other betaines have been discovered, and the more specific name glycine betaine distinguishes this one

Alpha-GPC Supplement - Examine

  1. Vica Cholin's is on Facebook. Join Facebook to connect with Vica Cholin's and others you may know. Facebook gives people the power to share and makes the world more open and connected
  2. e the functional impact of co-expression with inactive mutants, we utilized two mutants, I89A and E451Q (Fig. 6 A), both of which demonstrated significant loss of choline uptake activity (I89A and E451Q; ∼20 and 5%, compared with the WT, respectively)
  3. Sayaziza Cholins is on Facebook. Join Facebook to connect with Sayaziza Cholins and others you may know. Facebook gives people the power to share and makes the world more open and connected

Phosphatidylcholine Supplement — Health - Examine

  1. e if there are potential benefits of supplementary choline in adult mice. While research is needed in humans, this new research suggests choline could play an epigenetic role in mitigating factors that contribute to the development of Alzheimer's disease. As the body of research grows, the potential lifelong benefits of choline are.
  2. Nootropic Choline Source. While you may get choline from the foods that you eat, it is best to add supplements that contain this beneficial compound. Using citicoline or Alpha GPG supplements is a great way of getting choline into your system. Since citicoline and Alpha GPC powder buy are safe, there are no legal restrictions on these supplements. This means that you can find them in most.
  3. e the prognostic value of systemic choline and betaine levels in stable cardiac patients. Methods and results. We exa

Niculescu et al. (Section 5.1.1 and Appendix D) performed a study in 33 subjects (14 men and 19 women), aged 20-67 years, to examine the effects of a low-choline diet on gene expression in subjects who developed organ dysfunction due to low choline intake, those who did not, and the potential role of four SNPs in genes involved in folate and choline metabolism (PEMT rs12325817, MTHFD1. Cholins Betta is on Facebook. Join Facebook to connect with Cholins Betta and others you may know. Facebook gives people the power to share and makes the world more open and connected The principal goal for the study is to examine whether there is a difference between the ingestion of choline through supplements versus choline found within eggs on plasma TMAO levels. The investigators have previously shown that dietary intake of trimethylamines, including the choline group of phosphatidylcholine (PC), is mechanistically linked to cardiovascular disease risk and that the. Cleo Cholins is on Facebook. Join Facebook to connect with Cleo Cholins and others you may know. Facebook gives people the power to share and makes the world more open and connected Igor Cholin wurde in Moskau als Sohn einer Näherin und eines zaristischen Offiziers geboren. Während des Bürgerkriegs starb der Vater und die Mutter gab ihn ins Waisenhaus. 1940-1946 diente er in der Roten Armee, zuletzt als Hauptmann in Prag. Nach dem Krieg geriet er in einen Kreis von Dichtern, darunter Jewgeni Kropiwnizki und Genrich Sapgir. Unter deren Einfluß begann er auch zu.

Inositol Supplement - Examine

Piracetam Supplement — Health Benefits - Examine

An exploratory study to examine the effects of maternal choline supplementation during mouse pregnancy on placental epigenetic markers (miRNA-seq data set) Organism: Mus musculus: Experiment type: Non-coding RNA profiling by high throughput sequencing: Summary: This study sought to explore the effects of 4X maternal choline supplementation (MCS) on mRNA and miRNA abundance in mouse placentas. In the present study, the influence of choline chloride (ChCl) and lactic acid (LA) based NADES on the rheological behavior of bentonite suspension was investigated. Furthermore, it examines the difference in the rheological behavior of NADES treated suspension with others treated with ChCl-LA mixture (LA and ChCl added one after the other). The rheological behavior are correlated to the.

Choline - an overview ScienceDirect Topic

Ein glücklicher Zufall von Cholin, Igor - Jetzt online bestellen portofrei schnell zuverlässig kein Mindestbestellwert individuelle Rechnung 20 Millionen Tite Learn more about ALPHA-GPC uses, effectiveness, possible side effects, interactions, dosage, user ratings and products that contain ALPHA-GPC Choline is an essential nutrient ().This means it's required for normal bodily function and human health. Though your liver can make small amounts, you must obtain the majority through your diet

Citicoline (aka CDP Choline) Simplified Overvie

The objective of this study was to examine associations between consumption of eggs, cholesterol, choline, and betaine and the risk of diabetes among elderly US women. Methods . Multivariable Cox regression was used with data from the prospective Women's Health Initiative. Population attributable risks were calculated. Consumption of eggs alone (not mixed in foods) and nutrients were assessed. Choline bitartrate can be acquired from supplements that are available in different dosage forms including tablets and capsules. Choline is combined with bitartrate to produce salt to boost its solubility and bioavailability. According to the Food and Nutrition Board of the United States, the maximum daily dose of choline is 3.5g. Choline Bitartrate For Cognitive Use. Choline bitartrate is. Označite prijevode Cholin na hrvatski. Pogledajte primjere prevoda Cholin u rečenicama, slušajte izgovor i učite gramatiku CHOLIN. KOLIIN. eurlex-diff-2017. bei Säuglingsanfangsnahrung und Folgenahrung die durchschnittliche Menge aller in den Anhängen I und II aufgeführten Mineralstoffe und Vitamine sowie gegebenenfalls die numerisch ausgedrückte Menge an Cholin, Inositol, und Carnitin je 100 ml des verzehrfertigen Erzeugnisses; imiku piimasegude ja jätkupiimasegude puhul - iga I ja II lisas nimetatud. We are conducting studies in humans on this SNP. In another study, we examine choline's role in brain development and discovered that choline is critical for cortical and hippocampal development. We study mouse models and neural progenitor cells in culture to identify the molecular mechanism for choline's effect on brain

CDP Choline: Review of Benefits, Effects, Dosage, and More

Überprüfen Sie die Übersetzungen von 'Cholin' ins Polnisch. Schauen Sie sich Beispiele für Cholin-Übersetzungen in Sätzen an, hören Sie sich die Aussprache an und lernen Sie die Grammatik It considers evidence concerning the prevention of disease and developmental disorders along with more traditional evidence of sufficient nutrient intake; and examines data about choline, a food component that in the past has not been considered essential in the human diet. Although the reference values are based on data, the data were often scanty or drawn from studies that had limitations in. [en] Objectives: To test the ability of dynamic 11 C-PET / CT to discriminate cancerous tissue from background tissue in patients with localized prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four consecutive patients with prostate cancer were prospectively evaluated with dynamic 11 C-choline PET / CT prior to radical prostatectomy. The PET / CT scan was divided into 18 sequences of 5 seconds. Background: Habitual consumption of eggs has been hypothesized to positively modify biomarkers of cardiovascular disease risk through proposed antioxidant properties. Objectives: To examine this relationship, 50 young, healthy men and women were enrolled into a randomized crossover clinical intervention. Methods: Participants consumed either 2 eggs per day or one packet of oatmeal a day for 4..

In vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy - Wikipedi

Video: Choline intake and risk of lethal prostate cancer

Orthomol Cholin Plus it is the reason why our own medical team regularly examines and evaluates international studies on micronutrients and their benefits for health. And it is the reason why we are regularly certified by the German Technical Control Board (TÜV Rheinland) according to the strictest international standard on food safety, ISO 22000. And it is why each of our packets is. CDP Choline Making Me Tired? - posted in Brain Health: I was taking 250mg CDP 2x a day and have noticed brain fog/tiredness. Any thoughts? Current Regimen:Centrum Multi 1x Morning 2.4g Piracitam 2x Day1.2g Omega-3 2x Day5k IU Vitamin D Every Other Day1000mg Ester-C 1x Morning400mg SAMe 1x Morning750mg Glucosamine 2x Day750mg MSM 2x Day150mg Wellbutrin XL 1x Mornin Choline benefits our central nervous systems by acting as a precursor to Acetylcholine, which is one of the most important neurotransmitters in our brains. It handles the communication between neurons and deals with synaptic plasticity. Once the levels of Acetylcholine are maxed out, people can significantly improve their neural activity and the transmission of signals in their cerebrums.

We have linked to the Examine overview here as well as Cognizin's own overview here. Normally, we are highly critical of companies that take a generic ingredient and just slap a fancy sounding trademark on the name but Kyowa Hakko has sponsored studies on Cognizin / Citicolin to broaden our scientific knowledge and understanding of the ingredient which should be lauded. However, they do loose. Der Cholin-Bitartrat-rohes Steroid-Pulver-hohen Qualität DL Nootropics-Ergänzung CAS-87-67-2. Alle Produkte. Injizierbare anabole Steroide (231) rohe Steroidpulver (169) Peptid des menschlichen Wachstumshormons (173) Drogen der lokalen Betäubung (44) männliche Verbesserungssteroide (17) Mundanaboles steroid (30) Gewichtsverluststeroide (10) nootropic Pulver (16) Östrogensteroidhormon (11. Add a choline source (Alpha GPC or CDP-Choline) at a ratio of 1:4. 1 gram of Alpha GPC to 4 grams of Piracetam. Take enough choline to eliminate a racetam-induced headache. Then add 500 mg of ALCAR. Some have found ALCAR stacked with Coenzyme Q-10 has a profound effect on everything from mood to bipolar disorder. Especially combined with Alpha-Lipoic Acid.| You can also get 750 mg Acetyl L. In order to examine the potential application of DESs for natural gas upgrading, the solubilities of H 2 S, CO 2, and CH 4 in choline chloride (ChCl) plus urea mixtures were measured in this work. The solubility data were correlated with Henry's law equation to calculate the thermodynamic properties of gas absorption processes, such as Henry's constants and enthalpy changes. Grand-canonical.

examine more carefully what types of abilities NAA and choline best predict in a larger group of volunteers. Advertisement. Trending Latest Video Free. Female octopuses throw things at males that. Maternal choline intake was completely controlled at either 480 mg/day or 930 mg/day during these periods of time. Preliminary analyses indicate that the children born to mothers consuming the higher choline intake during the last trimester of pregnancy performed significantly better (v. 480 mg/d) on tests of attention, memory, and problem solving. This is the first evidence demonstrating that.

Purpose . We compared the accuracy of 18 F-Choline-PET/MRI with that of multiparametric MRI (mMRI), 18 F-Choline-PET/CT, 18 F-Fluoride-PET/CT, and contrast-enhanced CT (CeCT) in detecting relapse in patients with suspected relapse of prostate cancer (PC) after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). We assessed the association between standard uptake value (SUV) and apparent diffusion coefficient. Überprüfen Sie die Übersetzungen von 'Cholins' ins Ungarisch. Schauen Sie sich Beispiele für Cholins-Übersetzungen in Sätzen an, hören Sie sich die Aussprache an und lernen Sie die Grammatik Study examines which sources of choline increase risk of cancer progression. By Jacob Schor, ND, FABNO. Printer Friendly Page. Reference. Richman EL, Kenfield SA, Stampfer MJ, et al. Choline intake and risk of lethal prostate cancer: incidence and survival. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Oct;96(4):855-863. Design. Intake of dietary choline, supplements containing choline, and betaine (a choline. First, to examine the efficacy of MR16-1, we measured plasma IL-6 concentrations after MR16-1 treatment, and found that plasma IL-6 levels were greatly increased. This phenomenon may be caused by.

Choline consumption is associated not just with getting cancer, and spreading cancer, but also with a significantly increased risk of dying from it. Those who ate the most had a 70% increased risk of lethal prostate cancer. Another recent study found that men who consumed two and a half or more eggs per week—that's just like one egg every three days—had an 81% increased risk of. Choline and betaine status have previously been associated with symptoms of depression. However, the relation of maternal plasma choline and betaine concentrations in pregnancy to peripartum maternal mood is unknown. Methods. Maternal plasma choline and betaine concentrations (μmol/L) were measured at 26-28 weeks gestation in the Growing Up in Singapore Toward healthy Outcomes (GUSTO. Demand for the essential nutrient choline is extremely high during prenatal development because of accelerations in fetal and placental tissue expansion, DNA methylation, and other physiologic processes (1 - 3).Choline supply is of particular importance for the developing brain because it is a precursor of acetylcholine, a key neurotransmitter for regulating neuronal proliferation. Pea protein is the protein contained in peas. Pea protein is used for high cholesterol, obesity, increasing muscle strength, and other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to. In this context, the effectiveness of choline supplementation in improving the acetylcholine release was, Imaging was used to examine structures of different brain regions in children (6-12 years old) exposed in utero to chlorpyrifos. Those with the highest exposure showed thinning of the frontal cortical layers, and modification of certain sex-specific brain structures (Rauh et al. 2012.

Ein Großteil des Cholins im Körper liegt in spezialisierten Fettmolekülen vor, den sogenannten Phospholipiden. Das Phosphatidylcholin (auch: Lecithin) ist der häufigste Vertreter dieser Stoffgruppe. In synthetischer Form wird Cholin als Nahrungsergänzungsmittel verkauft oder als Therapeutikum gegen Leberschäden eingesetzt. Darüber hinaus kommt es in Kulturmedien für Pflanzen vor und. Choline Study awarded CCSS Spring 2021 Grant; Color preference impacts perception; Conference examines diversity in NYS youth development programs; Criminal behavior linked to thinking about risk, study finds ; Cultural background may influence how people view health; Elaine Wethington elected AAAS fellow; Engaged learning spotlight: beyond incarceration; Engaged learning spotlight: connecting. Cholin trägt zur Erhaltung einer normalen Leberfunktion bei. wikidata. Algorithmisch generierte Übersetzungen anzeigen. Beispiele Hinzufügen . Stamm. CHOLIN. CHOLIN. eurlex-diff-2017. for modermælkserstatninger og for tilskudsblandinger en numerisk angivelse af den gennemsnitlige mængde af hvert mineral og vitamin opført i henholdsvis bilag I og bilag II samt eventuelt af cholin. Choline is an essential nutrient. It helps keep the cells and nerves working normally. While choline is important for good health, most people seem to get enough from food

Betaine and choline status modify the effects of folic

Choline Study awarded CCSS Spring 2021 Grant; Color preference impacts perception; Conference examines diversity in NYS youth development programs; Criminal behavior linked to thinking about risk, study finds; Cultural background may influence how people view health; Elaine Wethington elected AAAS fellow ; Engaged learning spotlight: beyond incarceration; Engaged learning spotlight: connecting. Uses. Betaine (trimethylglycine) functions very closely with choline , folic acid , vitamin B12 , and a form of the amino acid methionine known as S-adenosylmethionine ( SAMe ). 1 , 2 All of these compounds function as methyl donors. They carry and donate methyl molecules to facilitate necessary chemical processes Research. Development. Production. We are a leading supplier to the global Life Science industry with solutions and services for research, biotechnology development and production, and pharmaceutical drug therapy development and production

The influence of choline treatment on behavioral and

acetylcholine (ACh) [as″ĕ-til-ko´lēn] the acetic acid ester of choline, normally present in many parts of the body and having important physiologic functions. It is a neurotransmitter at cholinergic synapses in the central, sympathetic, and parasympathetic nervous systems. Used in medicine as a miotic. Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of. Citicoline (also known as CDP-choline; cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine) is a naturally occurring compound and a building block of cell membranes. It is a common ingredient in supplements marketed for brain support. In Alzheimer's disease, choline levels decrease; this affects the brain cell's ability to produce acetyl-choline, a neurotransmitter important for memory. Brain cells may instead break.

Jarrow Citicoline CDP Cholin, mit jeweils 250 mg Citicolin

1 H MRS was used to examine N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), creatine (Cr), myo-inositol (mI), choline (Cho), and glutamate (Glu) concentrations in frontal and occipitoparietal grey matter. Group differences in concentrations of NAA, Cho, mI, and Glu, calculated as ratios over Cr, were explored using ANOVA. There were no significant differences in global cognitive function, memory, and executive. Myasthenia gravis is a chronic autoimmune, neuromuscular disease that causes weakness in the skeletal muscles that worsens after periods of activity and improves after periods of rest. These muscles are responsible for functions involving breathing and moving parts of the body, including the arms and legs. The name myasthenia gravis, which is. Cholin trägt zur Erhaltung einer normalen Leberfunktion bei. Cholín prispieva k udržaniu normálnej funkcie pečene. @wikidata. Algorithmisch generierte Übersetzungen anzeigen. Beispiele Hinzufügen . Stamm. CHOLIN. CHOLÍN. eurlex-diff-2017. bei Säuglingsanfangsnahrung und Folgenahrung die durchschnittliche Menge aller in den Anhängen I und II aufgeführten Mineralstoffe und Vitamine.

Inositol and Choline in Mental Health Care Psychology Toda

Noopept Powder, Capsules and Solution. Pure Nootropics offers Noopept in: 20 mg capsules, or 15 g bulk powder quantities, or a liquid solution (a 30 ml quantity containing 20 mg of Noopept per 1.0 ml). Notice: This product is a chemical compound. All chemicals have risks. This product is not approved by the FDA Choline Study awarded CCSS Spring 2021 Grant; Color preference impacts perception; Conference examines diversity in NYS youth development programs ; Criminal behavior linked to thinking about risk, study finds; Cultural background may influence how people view health; Elaine Wethington elected AAAS fellow; Engaged learning spotlight: beyond incarceration; Engaged learning spotlight: connecting.